Numerous researches from cognitive and educational psychology have discovered how thinking and learning can be improved in the classroom. The first eight principles emphasize some of the most important findings about teacher practices that influence student growth.
- Growth mentality
Students’ beliefs or perceptions about intelligence and talent affect their cognitive functioning and learning.
Research shows that students with a growth mentality are malleable and that success is related to the level of effort, focusing on goals and continuing to succeed despite failure. A great way to start the year in a psychology class is the discussion of growth against a fixed mindset; because it helps students understand how their belief in intelligence can affect their academic achievement.
about instructors students will be able to how encouraged to develop a growth mindset on Top In addition to numerous special idea in the 20 documents, communication with students to encourage the growth of teachers in the best way how an API online module on the praise, offering excellent examples that they can frame also has the mentality.
- Previous information
What students already know affects their learning.
Research shows that previous knowledge influences both conceptual growth and conceptual change. With conceptual growth, students contribute to their current knowledge and through conceptual change, students correct misunderstandings or mistakes in existing knowledge. Conceptual growth or facilitation of change requires firstly a basic level of student knowledge prior to the beginning of each unit through formative assessment. One way to evaluate the previous information is to start the unit with a short list of five to ten true / false expressions and to make a class discussion about the results. The results of this discussion may be guiding in the selection of suitable tasks and activities to facilitate conceptual growth or conceptual change.
- The boundaries of phase theories
Students’ cognitive development and learning is not limited to general developmental stages.
Research shows that cognitive development and learning are not limited to general developmental stages. It is important that instructors who teach Piaget’s cognitive phase theory also specify the limits of this approach. The psychology syllabus should emphasize the importance of Lev Vygotsky’s proximal development region theory and the critical role that interaction with more skilled people can have on learning and growth. Trainers can use this research to facilitate learning by designing instructions that use scaffolding, differentiation, and mixed ability grouping. It is also important that the most advanced students have the opportunity to work with others to challenge them, including other students or instructors.
- Facilitator context
Learning is contextual, so generalizing learning to new contexts is not spontaneous, but it needs to be facilitated.
When trainers help students transfer learning from one context to another, student growth and deeper learning are developed. Also, if trainers spend time focusing on deeper learning, they will better generalize learning to new contexts. One method of improving this skill is to enable students to use a particular unit of understanding to produce potential solutions to real-world problems. APA Psychology Teachers in Secondary Schools (TOPSS) provide an excellent example of this type of appointment to the problem-oriented unit on obesity in childhood (PDF, 260KB).
Having long-term knowledge and skills depends to a large extent on the application.
This principle details experimental-based strategies that will help students code the learned materials more effectively on long-term memory. In addition to those found in the memory unit, examples from this principle may help to instruct instruction throughout the course. Trainers often can help students improve their knowledge, skills and confidence by applying formative assessment through application problems, activities, and sample tests. In addition, trainers (distributed practice) who practice periodically at intervals will help students to achieve a greater increase in their long-term recovery ability. Practice tests should include open-ended questions that require both the acquisition of existing knowledge and the difficulty of applying this information to new situations or contexts, and thus include the fourth principle.
Clear, descriptive and timely feedback to students is important for learning.
This principle emphasizes the importance of instructor responses and provides feedback to students to maintain or enhance learning motivation